Oats are an important Cereal crop as well as a fodder crop. The cultivation of oats is similar to the wheat crop. It is mainly grown in Temperate and Subtropical climates. It can also thrive well in high-altitude tropics. They are very popular due to their health benefits. Oatmeal is a very famous food. Oats are rich in proteins and fiber. They also help in weight loss, controlling blood pressure and for building a strong immune system. Pritish Kumar Halder, in this article, gives a brief description of Oats farming
It can be cultivated on all kinds of soil. Well drained loamy soil rich in organic matter is suitable for cultivation. pH range of 5 – 6.6 is optimum for oats.
POPULAR VARIETIES WITH THEIR YIELD
Weston-11: It has been released in 1978 for cultivation in Punjab. Plants have height of about 150 cm. Grains are long and amber in color.
OL-10: Suitable for cultivation in all irrigated areas of Punjab. Seeds are of medium size. Gives average fodder yield of 270 qtl/acre.
Kent: It is suitable for growing in all areas of India. Average plant height is 75-80 cm. This variety is resistant to rust, lodging and blight. It gives fodder yield of 210 qtl/acre.
OL-9: Suitable for cultivation in all irrigated areas of Punjab. Seeds are of medium size. Gives average seed yield of 7 qtl/acre and fodder yield of 230 qtl/acre.
OL 11: Released in 2017. It gives an average yield of 245qtl/acre. The plants are leafy, long and wide leaf.
Other States Varieties
Brunker-10: It is a quick growing variety having fine, narrow, smooth leaves. It is resistant against drought. It can be cultivated in areas of Punjab, Delhi, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
HFO-114: It is suitable for cultivating in all oat growing areas. It was released in 1974 by HAU, Hisar. This variety is tall and it is resistant to lodging. It has bold seeds and has an average yield of 7-8 qtl/acre of seed.
Algerian: This variety is suitable for irrigated areas. Average plant height is 100-120 cm. It has slow early growth and light green color leaves.
OS-6: Suitable for cultivation in all areas of India. Gives average green fodder yield of 210 qtl/acre.
Bundel Jai 851: Suitable for cultivation in all areas of India. It gives average green fodder yield of 188 qtl/acre.
Land should be properly prepared to form a weed free field. Ploughing should be done 6-8 times to gain higher yields. Oat crop can tolerate higher pH levels than barley and wheat. Propagation in Oats is done through seeds.
Time of sowing – Second week of October to last week of October is optimum time for sowing seeds.
Spacing – Spacing of 25-30 cm should be kept between rows.
Sowing Depth – Depth should be 3-4 cm.
Method of sowing – Sowing is done through drilling method, zero tillage drill.
Seed Rate: Seed rate of 25 kg is required for one acre land.
Treatment of seeds: Seed should be treated with Captan or Thiram @3 gm/kg of seeds to protect seeds from various fungal and pathogenic diseases.
Nutrients Value (kg/Acre)
FYM should be added at the time of land preparation. Apply 30 kg of Nitrogen in form of (Urea 66 kg) and 8 kg of Phosphorus (in form of SSP@50 kg) per acre. Also apply half dose of nitrogen and full dose of Phosphorus at the time of sowing. Apply remaining amount of Nitrogen, 30-40 days after sowing.
Weed management is not necessary in case if plants become successful to make a good crop stand. These weeds are less likely to occur in oats. 1-2 hoeing can be given as intercultural operations.
Oats are mainly cultivated as rain-fed crop. But if they are grown as irrigated crop, two irrigations should be given at 25-28 days interval from sowing.
Insect-Pest and Their Management:
Aphid: It is the main pest of oats. It causes considerable damage by sucking of cell sap. It results in distortion and mottling of leaves. Dimethoate 30EC @0.03% helps to prevent aphid attack. This fodder should not be fed to animals for at least 10-15 days after spraying.
Disease and Their Management:
Leaf Blotch: Fungus establishes itself inter-cellular, tends to produce conidiophores which emerges through stomata and bears single terminal conidia. These conidia are brown to black in color, tapered at apex, 4-6 spectate. Primarily infection occurs through these conidia. Secondary infection occurs through Air-borne spores. Seed treatment should be done properly to manage this disease.
Root Rot: It is caused due to root parasite. It can be cured by proper seed treatment during seed sowing.
Oats are fully mature and ready to harvest after 4-5 months of sowing. To avoid grain shedding, Crop should be harvested in early April month.