Technology, the application of scientific knowledge to the practical aims of human life or, as it is sometimes phrased, to the change and manipulation of the human environment.

The subject of technology is treated in a number of articles. For general treatment, see technology, history ofhand tool. For description of the materials that are both the object and means of manipulating the environment, see elastomersindustrial ceramics; industrial glass; metallurgymineral depositmineral processingminingplastic. For the generation of energy, see energy conversioncoal miningcoal utilizationpetroleum productionpetroleum refining. For treatment of food production, see agriculture, history ofagricultural economicsbeekeepingbeercereal farmingcoffeecommercial fishingdairy farmingdistilled spiritfood preservationfruit farminglivestock farmingpoultry farmingsoft drinkteavegetable farmingwine. For the techniques of construction technology, see bridgebuilding constructioncanals and inland waterwaysdamharbours and sea workslighthouseroads and highwaystunnels and underground excavationsenvironmental works. For the manufacture and design of the means of transportation, see aerospace industryautomotive industryship construction. For communications technology, see broadcastingcomputer scienceinformation processingphotographyprintingphotoengravingtypographytelecommunication. For the processes and products of other manufacturing industries, see adhesiveclothing and footwear industrydyeexplosivefloor coveringforestrychemical industryman-made fibresurface coatingpapermakingsoap and detergenttextile. For medical applications of technology, see diagnosistherapeuticsdrugmedicine, history ofpharmaceutical industry. For military applications, see military technology. For treatment of the organization of technological systems, see automationengineeringproduction systemsystems engineeringwork, history of the organization of.